On our web log - we bring you tips, tricks and strategies to tackle the ‘NET/JRF in English for Professors’ to be held on Sunday, 22 January 2017. # Watch this space # for a ‘three-month comprehensive strategy’ on how to prepare for the NET/JRF - Papers II & III. Exclusively for you, from Benet, Rufus, Remya, Rebecca Susan and Thomas. NET Aspirants! Gear up! Rightaway!

Monday, 24 October 2016

Preparation for NET/JRF English - 8

Topics so far –

Now –

The Renaissance in England: Part - I

The Great Age of Translations
The Great Age of Chronicles
The Glorious Age of Theatre
The University Wits and their Significance
Age of Patriotic Exaltation
The High Conception of Poetry
The Pioneers in Poetry
Erotic Poets,
Pious and Reflective Poets
The Age of the Harshest Satire
The Age of the Prettiest ‘Euphuistic’ Prose
The Age of Literary Criticism
Religious Prose
Philosophical Prose: Bacon &Burton
The Pamphleteers
The Fertility of the Drama
Shakespeare – the crowning glory of the Age
The Beginnings of Literary Criticism
The Age of the Pamphleteers

Age of Translations

The Translations: Their Influence

The rich soil of the Elizabethan literature was fertilized by a deep layer of translations. By 1579 many of the great works of ancient and modern times had been translated into English. Practically, all the great books of the past and the present were brought under translation. Philemon Holland, the good humanist was called the ‘translator-general of his age’. He gave his country Livy (1600), Pliny the Elder (1601) and Plutarch’s Moral Writings (1603).

But the masterpiece of verse translation was incontestably Chapman’s Homer. Thanks to Chapman, the Iliad (1598-1609) became a great Elizabethan poem. Its energy and brilliancy were so powerful that it enthralled and inspired the young Keats two centuries later, who had no access to the original sources of Hellenism. Du Barthas was called the treasure of humanism and jewel of theology. His Semaines was translated vigorously between 1592 and 1606.

These translations from du Barthas and Homer became part of the treasure of Elizabethan verse, as the versions of Plutarch and Montaigne belong to the great prose. English style and prosody were formed by these countless translations, as the sonneteers were the most considerable of the borrowers.

Translation of The Bible

It was the question of translating the Bible which brought Sir Thomas More into direct conflict with William Tindale. Tindale, inspired greatly by Martin Luther, began translating the New Testament into English in 1522. As he was prevented from pursuing his work in England, where the king was still a defender of Catholic orthodoxy, he took refuge on the Continent, and had his translation printed in 1525. In spite of the measures taken by Henry VIII, it was introduced into England, where the ground had already been prepared by Wyclif. Tindale’s version of the New Testament was founded both on Luther’s translation, and on the Greek and Latin commentaries of Erasmus, which was the basis for the famous Authorised Version of 1611.

The Influence of the Bible: The English Bible has been a potent influence in our literature, Owing largely to their poetical or proverbial nature(multitudes of Biblical expressions have become woven into the very tissue of the tongue: "a broken reed," "the eleventh hour," "a thorn in the flesh," "a good Samaritan," "sweat of the brow," and so on'. More important, probably, is the way in which the style affects that of many of our greatest writers. Bunyan shows the style almost undiluted; but in the works of such widely diverse writers as Ruskin, Macaulay, Milton, and Tennyson the effects, though slighter, are quite apparent.

The Age of Chronicles

The patriotic impulse in England was responsible for the many chronicles, Protestant in spirit, which appeared in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Edward Hall’s Chronicle (1548),
Raphael Holinshed’s Chronicles published in 1578 and continued to 1586 were for long the reservoirs of national history, used by Spenser and Shakespeare among others.
John Stow’s Summarie of the English Chronicles,
John Speed’s History of Great Britain (1611), and
William Camden’s History of the Reign of Elizabeth were the other chronicles of the age.

Sunday, 23 October 2016

Essay Competition by ICPR

Essay Competition-Cum-Young Scholar’s Seminar – 2016-17

Indian Council of Philosophical Research invites Young Scholars (between the age group of 20-25 years as on 30.11.2016)  to participate in an Essay Competition–Cum-Young Scholars’ Seminar for the Year 2016-17 on the theme, "Indian Identity and Cultural Continuity". The competitors standing First, Second and Third on the basis of their essays and performance in the seminar will be awarded prizes of Rs. 25,000/-, Rs.20,000/-and Rs.15,000/-, respectively.  Essays in Hindi or English of about three thousand words on the theme along with the proof of date of birth are to be submitted by 30th November, 2016.  Essay may be sent to:-

The Director (A)
Indian Council of Philosophical Research,
Academic Centre : 3/9, Vipul Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow-226010

Advertisement in detail may be seen on their website www.icpr.in

Friday, 21 October 2016

Preparation for NET/JRF English - 7

Topics so far – 

Now - 

Background to the Renaissance in England

At the end of the 1400s, the world changed. Two key dates can mark the beginning of modern times. In 1485, the Wars of the Roses came to an end, and, following the invention of printing, William Caxton issued the first imaginative book to be published in England – Sir Thomas Malory’s retelling of the Arthurian legends as Le Morte D’Arthur. In 1492, Christopher Columbus’s voyage to the Americas opened European eyes to the existence of the New World. New worlds, both geographical and spiritual, are the key to the Renaissance, the ‘rebirth’ of learning and culture. England emerged from the Wars of the Roses (1453–85) with a new dynasty in power, the Tudors.

The Curious Case of Henry VIII

As with all powerful leaders, the question of succession became crucial to the continuation of power. So it was with the greatest of the Tudor monarchs, Henry VIII, whose reign lasted from 1509 to 1547. In his continued attempts to father a son and heir to the line, Henry married six times. But his six wives gave him only one son and two daughters, who became King Edward VI, Queen Mary I, and Queen Elizabeth I.

The need for the annulment of his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, brought Henry into direct conflict with the Catholic church, and with Pope Clement VII (1521–32) in particular. In reaction to the Catholic church’s rulings, Henry took a decisive step which was to influence every aspect of English, then British, life and culture from that time onwards. He ended the rule of the Catholic church in England, closed (and largely destroyed) the monasteries – which had for centuries been the repository of learning, history, and culture – and established himself as both the head of the church and head of state.

In a very short period of time, centuries of religious faith, attitudes and beliefs were replaced by a new way of thinking. Now, for example, the King as ‘Defender of the Faith’ was the closest human being to God – a role previously given to the Pope in Rome. Now, England became Protestant, and the nation’s political and religious identity had to be redefined. Protestantism, which had originated with Martin Luther’s 95 Theses in Wittenberg in 1517, became the official national religion, and the King rather than the Pope became head of the church. Although King Henry himself remained nominally Catholic, despite being excommunicated by the Pope, all the Catholic tenets, from confession to heaven and hell, were questioned.

Henry VIII’s break with Rome was not carried out as an isolated rebellion. Two European thinkers, in particular, established the climate which made it possible. The first of these was the Dutch scholar Erasmus, whose enthusiasm for classical literature was a major source for the revival in classical learning. His contempt for the narrowness of Catholic monasticism (expressed in The Praise of Folly) was not an attempt to deny the authority of the Pope, but a challenge to the corruption of the Catholic church. Erasmus had no time for unnecessary ritual, the sale of pardons and religious relics. He wished to return to the values of the early Christian church and in order to do so, produced a Greek edition (1516) of the Scriptures in place of the existing Latin one. Through his visits to England, Erasmus became a friend of Sir Thomas More, who was later beheaded for refusing to support Henry VIII’s divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Although much of Erasmus’s work prepared the ground for Protestant reforms, his aim was to purify and remodel the Catholic church, not to break away from it. He represented the voice of learning and knowledge, of liberal culture and tolerance.

Martin Luther and his 95 Theses

It was a quite different temperament, the German Martin Luther’s, which marked the decisive break with Rome. Luther agreed with much of what Erasmus said about the corruption of the Catholic church but they disagreed on their responses and Luther refused to submit to the Pope’s authority. Many historians regard 1517, when Luther pinned to a chapel door his 95 Theses Against the Sale of Papal Indulgences, as the start of the Reformation and the birth of Protestantism. Luther’s continuing opposition to the Pope led to his excommunication (1521) and the further spread of religious individualism in Northern Europe. It is against this background that we should place Henry VIII’s adoption of the role of the head of the English church and the church’s own quite separate style of Anglicanism.

Wednesday, 19 October 2016

Preparation for NET/JRF English - 6

Topics so far –  

Now –

Beginnings of the English Drama

Mimicry and make-believe are universal human impulses and drama has therefore developed  independently at various times and places in the world’s history.

Among the Greeks it attained high distinction.

Among the Romans it was less popular, as conditions in the Roman Empire were politically disturbed, and the populace preferred to shout and cheer at the chariot races and gladiatorial combats of the circus and amphitheatre rather than quietly watch a play. The theatre apparently did not attract the best literary talents in Italy.

Plautus and Terence (Roman playwrights) are not comparable to Virgil, Horace, or Livy in other forms of literature, and Seneca’s tragedies were ‘closet dramas’.

The most popular theatrical entertainments were the performances of mimes in which coarse humor and indecency combined to secure at times the attention of the vulgar. With the rise of Christianity the theatre ran into other difficulties. The Church objected to its associations with paganism, to the fact that in its lower forms it often ridiculed the new religion, and perhaps most of all to the immorality of both performances and performers. With the fall of the Empire, Roman drama disappeared, and for five hundred years only a faint dramatic tradition may have survived, passed on from the mimes to the medieval minstrel.

It is ironical that the Church, the force that had done most to drive Roman drama out of existence, should have been the institution in which modern drama was to take its rise. For the drama of the Middle Ages is not a continuation of Roman drama but a development from entirely new beginnings in the services of the Church, first in the more solemn service of the Mass.

(a) THE MIRACLE-PLAY. It is in the Church and its liturgy that we find the stimulus which leads to the rebirth of drama. The commonly used antiphonal singing had in it the elements of dialogue, while the obvious dramatic possibilities in the Roman Catholic ritual, especially in the Mass, were gradually developed as part of the elaborate ceremonial of the great religious feasts like Easter. As early as the tenth century we hear of Easter representations of the empty tomb of Christ, with dialogue between one figure sitting outside and three others who come in as if seeking something. The authorities were quick to appreciate the instructional value of such presentations as an addition to the Latin liturgy, and to this dramatization of the quern quceritis (whom seek ye?) rapid additions seem to have been made, both at Easter and at other feasts.

Tuesday, 18 October 2016

Confys/Seminars Ahead... Nov 2016 to March 2017


Starting this week, personal email alerts on Confys and Seminars to the inbox of recipients are being stopped forthwith. You may kindly access them here on our academic blog.

1. "Emergening Trends in English Literature" 
at O.P. Jindal Global University, Haryana 
– 21, 22 December 2016, HERE

2. “(His)tory, Her-story and 'Other' Narratives: Revisions and Re-interpretations in Story-telling” 
at Reva University, Bangalore, 
– 3, 4 February 2017, HERE

3. “Good Place: Representations of the Utopic” 
at University of Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal
 8, 9 February 2017, HERE

4. “Thinking Literature Across Continents” 
at University of North Bengal, 
– 24, 25 March 2017, HERE & HERE

5. World Shakespeare Conference, 
at Kolkata, West Bengal
– 28 Jan to 06 February 2017, HERE

6. "Shakespeare: The Stage and the State" 
at University Of Gour Banga, West Bengal
– 26 November 2016, HERE

7. “Doing Oral History: Memory, Folklore & Tradition” 
at Assam University, Assam
– 11, 12 November 2016, HERE

MIDS - Chennai Invites...


The “Discouraged Worker Effect” in Public Works Programs: 
Evidence from the MGNREGA in India

Dr. Sudha Narayanan, 
Associate Professor, 
Indira Gandhi Institute for Development Research (IGIDR), Mumbai

Dr. M. Vijayabaskar, 
Associate Professor, MIDS
Date & Time: Friday, 21 October 2016, 3:30 p.m.

Venue: Adiseshiah Auditorium, MIDS

The Nobility of A Writer's Thoughts...

It’s indeed a rarity to come across good events where you can listen - in rapt attention - to writers and their thought processes!

In this regard, today’s rendezvous with S. Ramakrishnan - author, novelist, thinker, littérateur, in the 'packed to capacity' Anderson Hall, MCC, on the occasion of the inaugural of the activities of the Tamizh Mandram, was way beyond ordinary - and an intellectual and inspirational treat of sorts. 

EsRa (S. Ramakrishnan) spoke on the 'three people' who mould and influence our lives –

great teachers
great thinkers
great artists

But unfortunately for the younger generation, they are so addicted to the internet, to sportspersons and to hero worship of actors that they forget to reminisce on these three great moulders of minds, he added.

He persuaded the audience to read Umberto Eco’s letter to his grandson – which had a great influence on him, he said. So i thought of promptly putting it down here - that letter of yore - more for the inspirational relevance it has for our times...

About Umberto Eco: Umberto Eco was a prolific Italian writer and semiologist, best known for his novel, The Name of the Rose.

This excerpt is a translation of his heartfelt “Letter to My Grandson,” in which he counsels the youth on the incalculable value of historical memory and of memorizing for its own sake—especially in the computer age.

Caro nipotino mio,

I would not want this Christmas letter to sound too “old school,” dishing out advice about love for your fellow man, country, the world, and such things. Even if you did listen to me, when the time came to put it into practice (you as a present tense adult and I gone to the past perfect), the value system will be so changed that my recommendations would be outdated. 
Still, at the risk of sounding like a lecturing fogey, allow me first to offer one recommendation that you can put into practice right now while surfing on your iPad.

If by chance you happen on any of the hundreds of porn sites that show the relationship between two human beings, or between a human and an animal (in all variety of ways), try not to believe from this that sex is, among other things, so monotonous. That kind of sex is staged to keep you from leaving the house to look at real girls (I start from the principle that you are heterosexual; otherwise, adjust my recommendations to your particular case). Look at real girls, at school or at play, because the real ones are better than those on television, and there will come a day when they give you greater satisfaction than those online.

Monday, 17 October 2016

Rendezvous with Ramakrishnan...

Dear Students of Literature,

Come and be a part of the
Inauguration of the
Tamil Association
Madras Christian College (Autonomous)
at 10. 30 am on 18 October 2016
in the Anderson Hall, MCC
and meet
renowned author, story teller, writer, film critic,
and a recipient of various literary awards
S. Ramakrishnan

About S. Ramakrishnan: He is a full-time writer who has been active over the last 25 years in diverse areas of Tamil literature like short stories, novels, plays, children’s literature and translations.

He has travelled all over India and has experienced living in the different parts of the country. His short stories are noted for their modern story-telling style in Tamil. He had, as Editor, brought out the literary publication, Atcharam for five long years. Now, his web site www.sramakrishnan.com serves as a serious literary movement for young readers since it has become an important website where contemporary literary innovations, world literature and world cinema congregate in a fertile ambience. An inspiring aspect of this site is that it has secured 13 lakh visits from readers all over the world. His short stories and articles have been translated and published in English, Malayalam, Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Kannada and French.

Checklist for Winners!

Click to enlarge

Preparation for NET/JRF English - 5

Now –

Chaucer’s Imitators and Disciples in England

John Lydgate: Lydgate was a friend of Chaucer, upon whom he models much of his poetry. But as a poet he is no Chaucer. Throughout the fifteenth century the authority of Chaucer was paramount, and Lydgate pays tribute to him on numerous occasions, always in the same tone, as “The noble poete of Breteyne, My mayster Chaucer.” John Lydgate has the distinction of being the most voluminous poet of the 14th century and even of all the Middle Ages in England - about 140,000 lines of verse. His longest poems are The Storie of Thebes and Troye Book.

[Classical times and the Middle Ages took a strange interest in the unnatural story of Oedipus and his marriage to his own mother. When his sons quarreled over the right to rule Thebes and the party of Polynices laid siege to the city, the opportunity existed for an epic narrative, comparable to that which described the siege of Troy. The Virgilian epic, the Thebaid, by Statius, a Roman poet of the Silver Age, gave western Europe such a treatment. Either the Thebaid or an epitome of it was made into a French poem in the twelfth century called the Roman de Thebes, and this in turn became the basis of other romances. The only English poem on the subject was Lydgate’s Siege of Thebes].

Stephen Hawes, while he is too much an echo of the past, is also an allegorist, and faintly heralds Spenser. Hawkes, who acknowledges as his masters the trinity - Gower, Chaucer and Lydgate – and especially Lydgate, is like a ghost from the past. His chief work is The Pastime of Pleasure.

Sunday, 16 October 2016

Essay Writing Contest - 2016


Contest starts on October 10, 2016, and lasts for two months.

Any student, regardless of academic level and location of studies, can participate.

The aim of the Essay Writing Contest is to give students the opportunity to demonstrate their writing talents and win an award for them.

The aim of the contest is to identify individuals who have both critical thinking and writing skills.

The 2016 Essay Writing Contest focuses on two aspects:

The ability to think critically
The ability to express thoughts clearly and logically

Saturday, 15 October 2016

Cheers Bob! - Nobel Laureate in Literature - 2016

Song in the History of English Literature

Literature DOES exist outside the traditional, stereotyped roles into which it has been pigeon-holed! Dylan’s Nobel is a recognition of this liberative power of the performative tuned to profound contemplations that stir many a chord in you and thereby lay a claim to your soul! Moreover, when you look at the plethora of books that have paid yeomen tribute to this pop-icon, and at the reams of paper that have sung peons to his novel poetic expressions, you cannot help but wonder at his rage of a passion - popular music! For those of you critics who feel that literature means, 'written works', well, Bob has written a kinda stream-of-consciousness work too, which comes under Experimental Literature, titled, Tarantulla way back in 1971. 

Well, one such book that celebrates Bob-the-singer is Michael Gray’s monumental 756 page, prodigious and passionate study of Dylan’s artistry - that's way way way beyond ordinary. Indeed, the title says it all – THE BOB DYLAN ENCYCLOPEDIA. Published in 2006, the book pays glowing tributes not only to Bob but also to hundreds of his fellow ‘troubadours’ in the vineyard!

 ‘Why a Monumental Encyclopedia on Bob Dylan’? Ask the author himself – and he replies -

Bob Dylan’s reach is too wide, too deep and too long for any book about him to cover it all. He’s a senior citizen. His career spans 45 years of American history, and that history has intersected with his prolific songwriting, recording, touring, acting, filmmaking, TV appearances and interviews. He has published a novel and a book of drawings, composed for film soundtracks and written a best-selling first volume of memoirs. He has found a place in the world of literature and academic study as well as in popular music. He is important to the history of the times, having given voice to a generation at a time of huge social change and political struggle; his songs are enmeshed in the story of the US civil rights movement as well as the Folk Revival movement. His busy life has embraced everything from bohemian excess to being Born Again.

His work has revolutionised song, reaching into every area of popular music from folk to blues to rock to gospel. He has met and worked with untold hundreds of musicians, politicians, celebrities, singers, poets, writers, painters, film-makers, actors and activists. He has released several dozen albums, written many hundreds of songs, in many cases adapting them from older folk and blues material, and recorded songs by many other composers. He has been the subject of an enormous number of books, academic conference papers, showbiz stories, essays and concert reviews. He has attracted more fanzine enthusiasm, and inspired more websites, than almost anyone in the world.
‘If in 100 years’ time Dylan’s art goes unheard and discounted, well, in 200 years’ time it may bounce back’, he signs off.

Song in the History of English Literature by WILFRID MELLERS
Professor of Music and former literary critic of Scrutiny
[this article has been excerpted from Gray’s Encyclopedia on Bob Dylan]

Wilfrid Mellers fell under the rigorous influence of the pre-eminent and now deeply unfashionable literary critic F.R. Leavis, becoming a literary critic himself and writing for Leavis’ defiant journal Scrutiny before turning towards music, publishing his book Music

Friday, 14 October 2016

Preparation for NET/JRF English - 4

The Age of Chaucer

France now boasted of Froissart, Chaucer’s contemporary, while Italy prouded itself with Boccaccio.

Chaucer also had his own contemporaries in England – but they still used Latin as their medium. The reason was because, English was still a disinherited tongue, used mainly for translations, and the first of our great translators was Sir John Trevisa, a contemporary of Wyclif at Oxford. He translated Higden’s Polychronicon into English. But soon, the situation changed. After the Black Death, English was used as a medium of instruction in schools. A statute of 1362 ordered legal proceedings to be conducted in English on the grounds that French was no longer sufficiently understood.

Chaucer’s Contemporaries

Chaucer was widely known amongst the literati of the day. His English contemporaries were:
John Gower,
John Wyclif,
John Trevisa,
John Mandeville,
Thomas Hoccleve,
William Langland, etc.

Piers the Plowman
John Gower: Chaucer seems to have been particularly close to ‘Moral’ Gower, as he dubs him in Troilus and Criseyde, giving him power of attorney when he left for Italy in 1378. In the first version of his Confessio Amantis, Gower makes a flattering reference to Chaucer as composing ‘ditees and songes glad’ in the flower of his youth. John Gower wrote his best-known work Confessio Amantis (A Lover’s Confession) in English, was written at the King's command. Gower’s ‘confession’ uses the concept with a degree of irony. He uses stories to recount the seven deadly sins of love (Amans), deriving considerable inspiration from the Latin poet Ovid, in a mock-religious dream vision. At the end, when the speaker has confessed all his sins, he announces that he will renounce love – but only because he is old, and nature has overtaken his capacity to love. A farewell to love rather than a vow of chastity is the ironic outcome.

Gower and Hoccleve were seemingly their equals in popularity in the fifteenth century’.

Thomas Hoccleve: His principal works are The Regement of Princes, written for the edification of Henry V, consisting of a string of sermons; La Male Regie, partly autobiographical, The Complaint of Our Lady; and Occleve's Complaint.

As the fourteenth century wears on we notice the greater use of prose. The writings of four men in particular - Mandeville, Trevisa, Wyclif and Nicholas of Hereford are of importance to us. 

The Adventures of John Mandeville
John Mandeville compiled and published a French book of travels between 1357 and 1371. This French work was very popular, and it was translated into several languages, including English.

Everyone knows about the incredible things he pretends to have seen: the gigantic race with one eye in the middle of the forehead, people with no heads but with eyes in their  shoulders, others with great ears hanging to their knees, snails so great that many persons may lodge in their shells, and scores of other marvels. Setting out to write merely a guide-book for those who might be making a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, he gives the usual account of routes, and towns, and places of interest at the more important points. But when this

Wednesday, 12 October 2016

Preparation for NET/JRF English - 3

Geoffrey Chaucer – An Overview of the Poet and His Age

The Background: FRENCH INFLUENCE AND ENGLISH AFFIRMATION: The world of Old English literature is a world of warriors and battles, a world where the individual, if not under the protection of his local lord, is a solitary outsider in a harsh and difficult society. The world was to change, slowly but radically, as a result of the most famous single event in English history the Norman Conquest of 1066. The Normans (originally ‘North Men’) crossed the Channel from France, won the Battle of Hastings, and took over the kingdom of England, which legitimately belonged to the family of the new king, William the Conqueror.

The Normans brought with them the French language and culture. The two centuries after the Conquest were a period of consolidation, as the two languages struggled to integrate: bilingualism was widespread, with French being widely read and written in England from the twelfth century to the late fourteenth century. It was, however, only after 1204, when King John’s losses of French lands led the aristocracy to opt for England or France, that the Norman conquerors themselves began to develop a fuller English identity and a desire to use the English language. Subsequently, more and more French words entered the English language.

At this time, London established itself as the capital city. The characteristics of the dialect which came to be recognised as the London dialect show that its main influences came from the north: from the university cities of Oxford and Cambridge and from the Midlands, rather than from the south.

The idea of an author comes into English literature significantly with Layamon, in the early thirteenth century. He wrote Brut, the first national epic in English, taking material from many sources and recounting tales of the Dark Ages, the two centuries between the departure of the Romans at the beginning of the fifth century and the first traces of the culture of the Britons. He takes the story up to the arrival of Saint Augustine, the first Archbishop of Canterbury, in 597, telling the story of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table – which will feature time and again in English literature as a mixture of history, legend, myth and magic.

GEOFFREY CHAUCER, 1338−1400. Chaucer (the name is French and seems to have meant originally ‘shoemaker’) came into the world probably in 1338, the first important author who was born and lived in London, which with him becomes the centre of English literature.

Chaucer was a professional courtier, a kind of civil servant. His patron was Duke John of Gaunt. His writing was a sideline rather than a vocation: the full-time English writer was still a couple of centuries in the future. Geoffrey Chaucer used a wide range of cultural references from throughout Europe in his writing, but he wrote almost exclusively in English.